Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners

Mindmapping, as a powerful brainstorming tool, is gaining popularity in all fields of science. This article aims at suggesting various activities enclosed with explanations of how this useful utility can be applied for a smooth transition from receptive skills to productive skills while teaching English. As mind maps only date back to 1976, the article initially provides an overview into how to use them and how well they suit the group of grown-Up learners. The third part of the article introduces the researcher’s own organization of twelve academic themes throughout the learners’ course. The most important part of the article involves an analysis of various examples of classroom mind maps as they are combined with various activities in classroom settings of various levels throughout the course, highlighting the shifting from one receptive skill to the corresponding productive skill with groups of learners’ contributions to the maps. Last but not least, in the conclusion part, both the summary of the work and some recommendations would be presented about the challenges teachers may encounter and thus should expect during the implementation process

Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners trang 1

Trang 1

Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners trang 2

Trang 2

Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners trang 3

Trang 3

Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners trang 4

Trang 4

Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners trang 5

Trang 5

Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners trang 6

Trang 6

Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners trang 7

Trang 7

Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners trang 8

Trang 8

Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners trang 9

Trang 9

Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners trang 10

Trang 10

Tải về để xem bản đầy đủ

pdf 19 trang minhkhanh 30/12/2021 140
Bạn đang xem 10 trang mẫu của tài liệu "Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners", để tải tài liệu gốc về máy hãy click vào nút Download ở trên

Tóm tắt nội dung tài liệu: Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners

Using mind-Mapping as a transition from receptive to productive skills for second - degree learners
DISCUSSION
USING MIND-MAPPING AS A TRANSITION 
FROM RECEPTIVE TO PRODUCTIVE SKILLS 
FOR SECOND-DEGREE LEARNERS 
Tran Thanh Thu*
Faculty of Language Education, VNU University of Languages and International Studies, 
Pham Van Dong, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam
Received 28 October 2018 
Revised 24 January 2019; Accepted 27 January 2019
Abstract: Mindmapping, as a powerful brainstorming tool, is gaining popularity in all fields of science. 
This article aims at suggesting various activities enclosed with explanations of how this useful utility can be 
applied for a smooth transition from receptive skills to productive skills while teaching English. As mind maps 
only date back to 1976, the article initially provides an overview into how to use them and how well they 
suit the group of grown-up learners. The third part of the article introduces the researcher’s own organization 
of twelve academic themes throughout the learners’ course. The most important part of the article involves 
an analysis of various examples of classroom mind maps as they are combined with various activities in 
classroom settings of various levels throughout the course, highlighting the shifting from one receptive skill 
to the corresponding productive skill with groups of learners’ contributions to the maps. Last but not least, in 
the conclusion part, both the summary of the work and some recommendations would be presented about the 
challenges teachers may encounter and thus should expect during the implementation process.
Keywords: mind-maps, vocabulary, classroom implementation, challenges for teachers
1. Introduction1
Receptive skills, also known as passive 
skills, include listening and reading skills and 
involve comprehension as the main goal while 
asserting their role as language input for the 
productive, or expressive skills they contrast 
with. With the recent approach on learning, the 
receptive skills are now being recognized as 
an integral part within the integrated learning 
method (Duquette, 1995).
While achieving communicative comprehension 
in receptive skills of listening and reading, 
* Tel.: 84-1692920545
 Email: thanhthu3108@gmail.com
learners acquire both the source language and the 
information or news on certain themes, and thus 
build up their language competence on the language 
as well as their background on those themes. In the 
corresponding expressive skills a speaker or writer 
would make use of the knowledge of the language, 
comprising of pronunciation or spelling, meaning, 
the use and finally grammar, combining their 
background knowledge of the topic as well as their 
understanding of the context and culture.
In the meantime, current curricula are 
revolving around theme-based course books 
with integrated skills to support learners since 
“as the theme focus moves from self and home 
to community and work, the dramatic play 
156 T.T. Thu/ VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, Vol.35, No.1 (2019) 155-173
area may change from the familiar child and 
household furnishings (doll, kitchen, etc.) to 
office, restaurant, or grocery store furnishings 
and props (cash registers, typewriters, etc.).” 
(Berry & Mindes, 1993).
For adult learners in general, they are 
expected to have more background knowledge 
as well as life experiences than young learners. 
Nevertheless, the groups of learners conferred 
here in the research would be more complicated 
as they belong to the group of adult learners 
among whom the majority have already 
acquired a university degree and purposely 
chose English as the major for their second 
degree. Furthermore, as they are studying for 
the second degree while doing their job or 
continuing another course at another university, 
it is crucial to maximize the efficiency of the 
methods of learning to help them achieve the 
aims and objectives of the course and hence aid 
them to reach level C1 - the required level of 
proficiency for their second bachelor degree.
While acquiring adequate competency 
of advanced level is crucial, the groups of 
learners faced a lot of difficulties as not only 
do they have rather limited class time for their 
English major but they also face rather more 
limited acquisition of language items due 
to the mature age, as compared to younger 
learners. Though as mentioned above, they 
tend to possess the utmost advantages of 
life experiences and in-depth background 
knowledge across different fields of the 
current news and information, in many cases 
strong understanding of their previous majors.
Before further discussion, a brief overview 
of the main concepts in the research would be 
discussed as follows.
1.1. Receptive and productive skills in 
language learning
The two sets of skills requires (1) the 
encoding process in which the speakers or 
writers use the language to put forward their 
messages, using language items of their choice, 
and (2) the decoding process whilst the listeners 
or readers attempt to comprehend the messages 
or pieces of information basing on their own 
language competence and background. 
Nevertheless, the reversed order would 
customarily be applied in language learning 
process as the decoding process involving 
receptive skills would come before the 
encoding process with their corresponding 
expressive skills, i.e. the order of mentioning 
when discussing all the four language learning 
skills should be (1) listening – (2) speaking, 
then comes the pair (3) reading – (4) writing.
Rather than aiming at readers as learners 
of the language, this section would aim at the 
side of the teachers/lecturers and hence focus 
on the terms and methodological notices 
during the teaching process.
In order for a set of communicative objectives 
in a communicative curricula to be accomplished, 
“the objectives should be experiental in nature, 
that is, they should make use of students‘ life 
experi ... to memorize. With the particular group of 
adult learners who may also have a job and 
a family to take care of, it is best for them to 
maximize the efficiency and learn the items 
fast. In the picture above, the lecturer actually 
drew some fruits and even a coconut tree to 
help her learner memorize the items better. If 
other teachers are not as confident in drawing, 
it’s for the best to prepare flash cards to aid 
with the memorization.
Figure 14. Picture of board mind map 2 – Fruits- elicited from learners learning the course of 
Level A2 – Pre-intermediate
168 T.T. Thu/ VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, Vol.35, No.1 (2019) 155-173
With the nature of this topic being the 
names of different kinds of fruit, it is useful 
to give learners a way to classify fruits, i.e. 
according to colors (ideas taken from the 
mind map on the internet, shown in the picture 
on the next page). The teacher then elicited 
learners’ vocabulary of the kinds of fruit 
they know and help them note on the board. 
Images or drawings also serve as motivators to 
encourage learners to study more efficiently.
It is crucial that the learners get to 
contribute to the map, since a sense of 
contribution would also be another motivation. 
Moreover, when the teacher keeps on giving 
out the main ideas, and the details as well, the 
ultimate goal of a mind map of organizing 
own ideas would be left out. This is why the 
mind map has to be done on the spot while 
internet materials are available and ready to 
be used in the classrooms with projectors, all 
available in the university.
Figure 15. A mind map from the internet to aid teachers while preparing for the lesson21
With proper citation, all these mind map 
can be of excellent use to revise quickly all 
the vocabulary items the learners already 
encountered or came up with in the first time, 
and it is inevitable that they have revision to 
enhance the introduced expressions for long-
term memory build-up (Halliday, 2014).
 Figure 16. Picture of board mind map 3 - describe my new classroom - a writing activity of 
Descriptive paragraph1
2 Source: https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource 
/fruit-mind-map-6451788
169VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, Vol.35, No.1 (2019) 155-173
With this topic, the teacher had to aid 
learners with the key questions to ask about 
the topic. For some of the questions that 
learners could think of themselves, the 
lecturer instructed them to have a relationship 
among/between their ideas: chronological 
order, spatial order, causes – effects, or trying 
to sequence the ideas in a logical way. 
From this instant, it is useful to note that 
implementing this useful modern tool would 
mean a lot of hard work to the side of the 
teacher as not only do they have to prepare 
for a lot of materials and may have to search 
for ideas for categorization from other mind 
maps on the internet, they also have to master 
eliciting skills, which means dealing with, 
helping learners organize their random ideas 
into the map, explaining to them the reason 
why that particular supporting idea should 
belong to that idea, and may have to help them 
order the ideas most defi nitely immediately.
Figure 17. Picture of mind map 5 – Family tree (drawn by a learner) in A1 Level - Elementary
The result can be highly pleasing. The 
picture above is from a learner. Some of 
them can follow the instructor and draw 
very creative map which implies their high 
motivation in learning the language.
The mind maps are integrated with images 
to motivate learners to study. 
With a normal setting in class, the 
following mind map can be a good example of 
a mind map made used of the white chalks and 
green board in all classrooms, which can be 
served as a substitute for the slideshows when 
there are technical problems.
Figure 18. Board photo of activity in class (number 1): Eliciting and suggesting main themes for 
learners of Level B1 – Intermediate
170 T.T. Thu/ VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, Vol.35, No.1 (2019) 155-173
For instance, with a writing question 
with the test question: ‘What do you think 
of this statement: “People nowadays are 
more dependent on technology.”,’ the teacher 
asked learners to fi nd the key words and work 
together in small groups of 3 or 4 and discuss 
how they should develop ideas and add more 
vocabulary items on to the map. The following 
is a good example of a group who have done 
an excellent job.
Figure 19. Board photo of activity in class (number 2): Writing skills: Group work for learners 
of Level B2 – Intermediate
Figure 20. Board photo of a speaking activity in class (number 3): Writing skills: Group work 
for learners of Level B2 – Upper-intermediate
In this activity, learners have an inquiry of 
matching their supporting ideas with the big 
themes the vocabulary items of which can be 
used in their speeches. The numbers 3, 4, 5, 
6, 10, 12 can actually serve as suggestion for 
students of lower level: before they can come 
up with ideas, the teacher can suggest them 
think about the main themes they have learnt 
and try to connect the topics of the questions 
to the main themes.
Figure 21. Board photo of a speaking activity in class (number 3): Writing skills: Group work 
for learners of Level B2 – Upper-intermediate
171VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, Vol.35, No.1 (2019) 155-173
Within the speaking lesson, this activity 
can actually be a good example of a test 
preparation one. The core mind maps are 
actually from a real speaking test, part 3, 
with the topic of “there are several reasons 
why people choose to live in a big cities”. 
This activity is a class activity with a student 
playing the role of the secretary. Anybody in 
the class can contribute, and the teacher would 
correct or make comment when necessary.
 Figure 22. Board photo of activity in class (number 3): Writing skills: Group work for learners 
of Level B2 – Intermediate
This is an example of a mind map playing 
the role of the transition from Reading (a 
receptive skill) to Writing (the corresponding 
productive skill). Learners can make use of 
the language items they could remember from 
the previous activity and contribute to it using 
their own knowledge and experience. Relating 
to themselves was highly encouraging as can 
be observed in the classroom. 
With the kind of organization of 
comparing and contrast, it is benefi cial to note 
the students that they may have to face the 
same structures in all the four skills and it is 
safer to brainstorm a mind map so that they 
can organize their ideas better, as in VSTEP 
speaking test they also have one minute each 
to prepare for part 2 and part 3 of the test. As 
the ideas are so clear, the teacher here can play 
the role of a participants and allow the learners 
to have more freedom in deciding their ideas, 
suggestions and corrections may be provided 
afterwards as feedback. 
Figure 23. Board photo of activity in class (number 3): Writing skills: Group work for learners 
of Level B2 – Intermediate
172 T.T. Thu/ VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, Vol.35, No.1 (2019) 155-173
With the type of questions which require 
learners to compare two kinds of means of 
transport, the teacher may choose to suggest 
them focus on the nature of the subject (in 
this case ‘young people’). It can be seen 
from the picture that on the top they actually 
indicate clearly not only the key words but 
also the relationship among the items, using 
very good symbols. This table is also a form 
of mind map but its format was adjusted to 
fit the requirements of the lesson: choose the 
appropriate supporting idea for each main idea, 
indicating the appropriateness with arrows. 
5. Conclusion 
This part of the article will demonstrate 
the summary and provide some suggestion 
for fellow teachers while applying this tool in 
their teaching.
In applying the method to various groups 
of students of all the levels from A1 to C1, the 
question was not whether the teacher should 
make use of the useful tool; rather, it naturally 
shifted to the question of how should be 
applied in specific situations. The fourth part 
of this article was dedicated to achieve that. 
As beneficial as it is, when applying the 
tool to classroom setting, there are certain 
challenges for teachers throughout the process. 
First and foremost, they need to be prepared 
for all kinds of unexpected responses from 
their experienced learners and thus searching 
the internet in advance and constant build-up 
of background knowledge on various topics 
would be obligatory.
Secondly, they may have to be ready for all 
kinds of questions, most of them concerning 
the reasons why they should put a supporting 
idea or an example into a branch of main idea. 
This requires high level of critical thinking 
and logic.
Another challenge is the required 
flexibility and quick response from the side 
of the teachers. There are often more than 20 
students in one group and the teacher has to 
elicit, analyze, select ideas, and organize them 
into the correct branches, while determining 
whether or not the learners could come up 
with proper main ideas, persuading them to 
use certain supporting details and not others.
Though the tool can be rather challenging, 
applying them in real classroom setting can be 
very rewarding as it inspires both teachers and 
learners to be creative and thus stay motivated 
throughout the process. The reporter highly 
recommends the use of this useful tool in a 
large scale.
References
Amstrong, T. (2003). The Whole-brain Solution: 
Thinking Tools to Help Students Observe, Make 
Connections and Solve Problems. Ontario: 
Pembroke Publishers Limited.
Berry, C. & Mindes, G. (1993). Planning a Theme-
based Curriculum: Goals, Themes, Activities, and 
Planning Guides for 4s and 5s (pp. 10-11). New 
York: Good Year Books Publisher.
Biggam, J. (2015). Succeeding with Your Master’s 
Dissertation. Ontario: Open University Press - 
McGraw-Hill Education.
Buzan, T. (1974). Use your head. London: British 
Broadcasting Company Publisher.
Buzan, T. (2018). Mind Map Mastery: The Complete 
Guide to Learning and Using the Most Powerful 
Thinking Tool in the Universe. London: Watkins 
Publishing.
Candlin, C. N. (1988). Vocabulary and Language 
Teaching. London: Longman. 
Carter, A. & McCarthy, J. (2014). Vocabulary and 
Language Teaching. London: Routledge. 
Faculty of English, University of Languages and 
International Studies, Vietnam National University, 
Hanoi. (2015). Schedule for General English 1 
(Semester I – Academic Year: 2015 - 2016). 
Green, F. (2015). Mind Mapping: Step-by-Step 
Beginner’s Guide in Creating Mind Maps!. 
Bloomington: Booktango Publishing.
Guerrero, J. & Ramos, P. (2015). Introduction to the 
applications of mind mapping in medicine. Toronto: 
CreateSpace Independent Publishing.
173VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, Vol.35, No.1 (2019) 155-173
Haggard, R. (1986). The vocabulary self-collection 
strategy: Using student interest and world knowledge 
to enhance vocabulary growth. Journal of Reading, 
29(7), 634–642.
Hall, T., Milch, A. & McCormack, D. (2007). How to 
master skills for the TOEFL iBT Reading, Basic. 
Seoul: Darakwon Publishing.
Halliday, M., & Matthiessen, C. (2014). Halliday’s Introduction 
to Functional Grammar. London: Routledge. 
Knowles, S., Holton, F., & Swanson, A. (1998). The adult 
learner: The definitive classic in adult education and 
human resource development. Houston Tex: Gulf Pub. Co.
Lessard-clouston, M. (2013). Teaching vocabulary. 
English Language Teacher Development Series. 
California: TESOL International Association.
Naqbi, S.A. (2011). The use of mind mapping to develop 
writing skills in UAE schools. Education, Business 
and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 
4(2), 120 - 133.
National Education Union. (2018). Fruit mind map. 
Retrieved from https://www.tes.com/teaching-
resource/fruit-mind-map-6451788 
Scott, S., Scott, D. E., & Webber, C. F. (2015). 
Leadership of Assessment, Inclusion, and Learning. 
New York: Springer Publisher.
Suyanto, A. (2010). The effectiveness of Mindmapping 
to Teach Writing Skill Viewed from Their IQ (An 
Experimental Study in the Seventh Grade Students 
of SMPN 1 Prambon in the Academic Year 
2009/2010). Graduate, Sebelas Maret University, 
Surakarta, Indonesia. 
The Peak Performance Center (2018). Mind mapping. 
Retrieved from 
com/educational-learning/thinking/mind-mapping/
Wahba, K., England, L. & Taha, Z. (2017). Handbook 
for Arabic Language Teaching Professionals in the 
21st Century. London: Routledge.
ỨNG DỤNG CÔNG CỤ SƠ ĐỒ TƯ DUY 
VÀO HỆ THỐNG HÓA CÁC YẾU TỐ TỪ VỰNG 
THEO CHỦ ĐỀ CHO HỌC VIÊN VĂN BẰNG HAI
Trần Thanh Thư
Khoa Đào tạo và Bồi dưỡng Ngoại ngữ, Trường Đại học Ngoại ngữ, ĐHQGHN, 
Phạm Văn Đồng, Cầu Giấy, Hà Nội, Việt Nam
Tóm tắt: Sơ đồ tư duy, một công cụ hữu ích cho người học, đang ngày càng được ứng dụng 
rộng rãi trong nhiều ngành khoa học. Chính vì vậy, mục tiêu của bài viết này là chia sẻ các hoạt 
động áp dụng sơ đồ tư duy vào việc dạy từ vựng tiếng Anh. Trước tiên, bài báo sẽ có những giới 
thiệu tổng quan cách sử dụng sơ đồ tư duy cũng như cách áp dụng trong các hoạt động gắn với từ 
vựng. Bài báo sẽ trình bày cách chia nhóm đối với mười hai chủ đề lớn bao trùm nội dung trong 
chương trình học của học viên. Phần tiếp theo, cũng là phần quan trọng nhất, sẽ đưa ra những phân 
tích về các sơ đồ tư duy đã được sử dụng trong lớp học cũng như cách kết hợp chúng với các hoạt 
động cụ thể trong giờ học, qua đó, có những đề xuất để giải quyết các vấn đề mà người dạy có thể 
gặp phải trong quá trình áp dụng.
Từ khóa: sơ đồ tư duy, từ vựng tiếng Anh, việc áp dụng trên lớp học, thách thức đối với giáo viên

File đính kèm:

  • pdfusing_mind_mapping_as_a_transition_from_receptive_to_product.pdf